Active population → people who are either employed or actively seeking employment
Ageing population → a population with a greater number of older people (65 years and over) than young people
Census → a list of information about all the inhabitants of a place. It includes their address, age, gender, education, job, and their social and economic level.
Demographic transition → the demographic transformation of developed societies
Birth control policies → measures to slow down population growth
Birth rate → the number of births in a population in a specific period of time
Death rate → the number of deaths in a population in a specific period
Fertility rate → the estimated average number of children a woman will have in her lifetime. To have generational replacement it should be at least 2
Infant mortality rate → the number of deaths of infants under one year old, in a year.
Life expectancy → the number of years a person is expected to live
Democracy → a political system in which citizens elect their government, and citizens’ rights are guaranteed.
Dictatorship → a political system in which all power is concentrated in one leader or group
Republic → a system of government in which the president is the Head of State. There are democratic republics, where power resides in elected officials, or single-party republics, which are a type of dictatorship.
Welfare state → a concept of government whereby the state guarantees the economic and social well-being of its citizens