Concept of education

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Charles II died childless (1700)    -    Philip V (Bourbon) crouded King of Spain


                                                     Prince Charles of Austria as King of Spain

- France didn't want to be surrounded (rodeado) by Habsbourgs.

- England and Austria (Grand Aliance) fought against Philip V,

  joined with Portugal, The Netherlands and the Kingdom of Savoy.

- The crown of Aragón afraid of French centralisation, supported

  the Habsbourgs.


- International

   · European powers signed the peace in Utreach (1713) and in Rastatt (1714).

   · England gained Newfoundland, Hudson Bay, Gibraltar and Menorca.

   · Basque fishermen of Bayonne coudn't fish cod in Newfoundland.

   · England obtained the right to trade with America.

   · Austria gained Milan, Naples, Sardinia and Spanish Netherlands.

   · France lost North American territories and Hudson Bay.

- National

   · Philip V of Spain renounced to French throne.

   · Centralisation -----> Aragon lost his Fueros (replaced to Castilla's ones).

                         ----->New Model Decress --> unified political system.

   · Basque Fueros remained, but suffered some reductions.

New ideas

Ideas of the Enlightenment: Reason, nature, happines, progress and freedom.

Sieyes: Delegate of the 3rd estate. - Pamflet/3 demands

· 3rd estate should elect their own delegates.

· These delegates should be equal in number to the privileged estates.

· 1 person, 1 vote.

Rousseau: The Social Contract

· Against the Divine Right of Kings.

· Sovereignity resides in people.

· "Man is born free, but is everywhere chains".

Montesquieu: The spirit of the laws - Separation of powers

· Legislative, Executive and Judicial powers -this form the Constitution.

American Revolution: Republic - Profund effect on European observers

· New government included a representated variety of social class.

· Choosing their own form of government.

· Regulating their own taxation system.

· Constitution

· Ideas of liberty, equality, prived property, representative government.

Crisis of the (Ancien Regime: absolutism + estate-based society)

· Social organization - contradictions and tensions in the estate-based society.

· Financial difficulties

    - Inefficient administration system.

    - 3rd estate unable to pay more.

    - Privileged estates didn't want to pay.

· Discontent of the 3rd estate

Financial crisis of the French State

· American War of Independence worsen French economy.

· They needed more taxes, so Louis XVI convoked a ESTATES GENERAL to make

privileged estates pay taxes.

Food Crisis

· Crop failures and severe winters in 1788 and 1789, so bread prices increased.

· Not enough food.

· Cost of living doubled.

Napoleon's France (1799 - 1814) (12.)

- Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France between 1799 and 1814.

- Main ideas: unification of Europe, of laws, of centralisation...

- It had two periods:

     · The Consulate (1799-1804): Napoleon gave himself more power and he applied many of the

                                               revolutionary ideas, supported by the high-bourgeoisie.

     · The Empire (1804-1814): He declared the Emperor of France. He wanted to create an European

                                           Empire. He spread revolutionary ideas almost all of Europe.

- Napoleon was defeated (derrotado) in 1814 by a coalition of countries that fought against him.

- After the Congress of Vienna, European other powers tried to set up again the absolutist sistem

  prior to the revolution.

- Napoleon tried again to stop that, but he was defeated again in 1815.

- The liberal ideas that Napoleon spread in Europe:

     · Government: He wanted national unification, controled by a strong central government. He set up

                          a constitutional monarchy and French chose the representatives by universal suffrage.

     · Religion: Napoleon guaranteed religious freedom, in which Protestants and Catholics were respected.

                    The Church could no longer collect tithes.

     · Law: The country needed laws which guarenteed efficiency and national unity. The new laws

              incorporated: equality before the law and freedom of religion. Women didn't obtain any rights

              and they were considered to be inferior.

     · Education: Napoleon, favoured a state system of secular education. He centralised a national

                       curriculum that it continues in France nowadays.

     · Economics: The main aim was to stimulate the economy and at the same time serve the interests of the

                        bourgeoisie. Napoleon bouilt roads and canals. He also established the Bank of France.

The Congress of Vienna (1814) (13.)

- The Co. Of Vi. Was summoned (convocado) to reset (reajustar) the division of territories of Europe

   and to restablish the Anciem Regime.

- It was supported by the the four major powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia and Great Bretain).

- There were two opposing ideologies: absulutism and liberalism and nationalism.

     · Absulutism: driven by the absulutist monarch who met in Vienna. Not to divide the power.

     · Liberalism and nationalism: emerged out of the ideas of the Enlightenment, the French and American

                                               revolutions and the parliamentary system of Great Bretain, driven by

                                               the bourgeoisie.

Agricultural Revolution (21.)

- Until 1700, agriculture was an inefficient system and only produced enough food to feed families

  (subsistence farming) on small trips of land usually in a big field that belonged to rich landowners.

- There were no farm machines, people had to manage with a few simple tools.

- In the 18th century the population increased and new ideas and machines were being tried out.

- A new idea: the enclosure (large fields, fences and controlled by few private owners).

- Before enclosure: open lands with no fences, field left fallow, wasted land between strips,

                             common lands used by the villagers for wood and grazing animals.

- After enclosure: inventions led to mechanised farming, seed drills for planting, fields enclosed with

                          hedges and fences, open fields/common lands organised into enclosed fields to

                          increase productions, need to prove ownership and have money to enclose fields,

                          peasants became labourers on landlord's lands, crop rotation to increase production.

                          previous open fields/common lands organised into enclosed fields to incrase

                          production, specialised farms to increase production (cattle, pigs...).

Causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution (22.)

Transport: High cost (p.) - building the canal (f.) - reduce cost of transport (c.)

                Bad mean of trans. (p.) - invention of the railway (f.) - improve connection factories-mines (c.)

Urbanism: Demand of housing (p.) - tenements (etxeak) were built (f.) - dozens of families lived together (c.)

                Worker basic needs (p.) - building new social support services (f.) - social differences (c.)

                Middle-class growing (p.) - made aviable museums, theatres... (f.) - mid.-cl. Can afford arts/culture (c.)

Agriculture: Towns needed more food (p.) - new mechanical inventions (f.) - increase of farm production (c.)

                 Lack of land for farming (p.) - Enclosure Acts were      - landowners can buy pieces of

                                                             passed by Parliam. (f.).      common land from the Gover (c.)

Demofraphy: Diseases and plagues (p.) - measures to reduce this (f.) - hygiene and healthcare (c.)

                    Workers are need to work (p.) - people move to village (f.) - big profits from textile factory (c.)

Technology: Want,to,produce,more and cheaper (p.) - invention of a new machine (f.) - clothes made faster (c.)

                   Energy generator machines (p.) - invention of the steam engine (f.) - can build factories

                            weren't effective                                                                    away from the river (c.)

                   Iron industry isn't efficient (p.) - invention of the puddling process (f.) - Iron use increased (c.)

                   Want to manufacture more   - power-driven machinery became - cheaper and more

                            and cheaper (p.)              mechanized manufacture (f.)         production (c.)

Capital: Entrepreneurs (empresarios)                 - establishment of a bank    - capitalist can make

                need capital to set un factories (p.)       to lend money (f.)                   profits (c.)

            Capitalist wanted more money (p.) - Capitalist hire (alquilar)  -  variety of diseases (c.)

                                                                  women and childen (f.)

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