Three Christian kingdoms at the beginning of the Middle Ages

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Popular religiosity in the Middle Ages was inspired by ancient Pagan customs that the Church had christianised, such as funeral rites and festivities related to the seasons. Christianity launched eight Crusades between 1095 and 1270: military expeditions to retake the Holy Land. This is the land where Jesus Christ preached and diedIn the 12th and 13th centuries, the crusaders formed several kingdoms, of which the most important was Jerusalem.Until the 12th century, culture was shut away in monasteries. Monks were virtually the only people who could read and write. Much of their work took place at the desks in the monastery library, where they made copies of works of the early Christian thinkersWith the urban growth of the High Middle Ages, cultural activitymoved to cities. Thanks to the bishops of cities like Paris and Chartres, schools associated with the local cathedral were founded After the fall of the Roman Empire, Latin evolved into the Romance languages: French, Portuguese, Castilian, Catalan, etc. However, Latin remained the language of culture in ecclesiastical and university spheres for many centuries.During the High and Late Middle Ages, along with commercial and urban growth, there was a strong increase in the number of intellectuals who were not clergymen.The 14th century, with its many conflicts, was marked by a strongly pessimistic way of thinking and an obsession with death.

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