Catolicavirtual empire

Classified in History

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social contract - Hobbes

John Locke - natural rights (l,l,p)

Voltaire - freedom of religion and rights

montesquieu - separation of powers (checks and balances)

enlightened despots - Catherine the Great, Frederick II,  Joseph II

Thomas Jefferson - declaration of independence

James Madison - Bill of rights, father of the constitution

Benjamin Franklin - A founding father, scientist, statesman (education)

Thomas Hobbes - An English philosopher, equality in society

Beccaria - Italian criminologist, against torture

Adam Smith - wealth of nations

Montaigne - French writer. Thought life's meaning. Essay. 

LO Self interest - work for own good

LO competition - forces make better products, better price

LO supply & demand - more product; $ down, less product; $ up

Capitalism - supports competitive business environment

democracy - government. power in the hands of the people

federalism - division power (national & state governments)

legislative - (congress), senate - laws, house of rep. - taxes

executive - (presidential), veto, appoint judges, sign laws

judicial - (court), supreme & lower, interpreting laws

old regime - political & social system. Post-rev. France

estates general - assembly of representatives from all states

national assembly - people that pass laws and reforms 

tennis court oath - to not stop meeting until new constitution

great fear - a wave of senseless panic

Émigrés - nobles & people who fled and wanted the old regime. 

sans-culottes - workers, wanted revolution to bring change. 

Jacobins - radical political organisation. Marat

Robespierre - Jacobin & committee of public safety leader. 

Reign of terror - period of rule of dictator Robespierre

Battle of Trafalgar - 1805. Only battle lost by Napoleon (Spain). 

Continental system - prevent trade & communication England

scorched earth policy - burning fields & killing live-stock

peninsulares 5, creoles 20, mestizos (european7, mulattos 7, indians 56, africans 6.4

José de San Martín - Latin American liberator, Argentina

conservative - keep same, National Assembly limited

liberal - give more political power to elected parliaments

radical - favoured drastic change to extend democracy

nationalism - loyal to nation, not to king or empire

nation-state - geopolitical people; common culture &identity

American rev. War - 1776 French (proxy)

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