Basic problems of political science

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ANCIENT REGIME

17-18 CENT. POLITICAL,ECONOMIC,SOCIAL TRANSF. TOOK PLACE. START  MODERN AGE.

FEUDAL SYSTEM MODIFICATIONS:

  • EUROPEAN MONARCH + POWERFUL.
  • NEW FORMS SKILLED CRAFTSMANSHIP/INCREASE TRADE (OPEN ECONO.)
  • BOURGEOISE BECOME WEALTHIER, + POWERFUL DUE CONTROL CRAFT PRODUCT. AND TRADE.
  • HUMANISM DEVELOPED: NEW WAY THINKING REPLACE RELIGIOUS THOUGHT.
  • ADVANCES SCIENCE AND PHISOLOPHY OVERCOME DESIRE KEEP KNOWLEDGE SECRET.
  • NEW ARTISTIC STYLES EMERGED DISTINCT FROM CATHOLIC CHURCH.


POLITICS OF ANCIENT REGIME

17 CENT. ABSOLUTE MONARCHY PREDOMINATE WESTERN EUROPE. CONSIST CROWN UNLIMITED AUTHORITY.

MODEL ABSOLUTE MONARCHY: LOUIS XIV FRANCE (1643-1715) HE NOT CALL ESTATES GENERAL, CONTROLLED GOVERNMENT, INTERVINE IN ECONO..

SPAIN POWER DECLINE IN 17 CENT. DURING REIGNS OF LESSER HAPSBURGS, BECAUSE DEFEAT 30 YEARS WAR (TERRITORIAL LOSSES)

PARLAMENTARY MONARCHY ENGLAND

CHARLES I FACED OPPOSITION FROM PARLIAMENT WHEN TRIED RULE AS ABSO. MONARCH. THIS LED A Civil War BETWEEN ROYALIST AND PARLAMENTARIANS.

CHARLES DEFEAT N EXECUTED 1649. REPUBLIC ESTABLISHED CONTROL OF Oliver Cromwell. DEATH-ABSO. MONARCHY RE-ESTABLISHED - CHARLES II.


ECONOMY/SOCIETY ANCIENT REGIME

ECONOMY

  • TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE-VERY LOW PRODUCTIVITY. AGRICUL. NOT COMERCIAL.
  • DOMINANCE GUILDS: WERE ASSOCIATIONS CRAFTSMEN- REGULATE ASPECTS SUCH WORKING HOURS,PRICES.
  • DOMESTIC TRADE: GREW LITTLE DUE INTERNAL CUSTOMS DUTIES N POOR QUALITY OF ROADS. FOREIGN TRADE EXPANDED DUE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.

MERCANTILISM:IMPOSED IN 17 CNT. BY EUROPE ABSOLUTE MONARCH, IDEA BASED ON GOLD N SILVER  POSSESED.

ECONOMY IN SPAIN

CRISIS BECAUSE AMERICAN MARKETS STOP BUYING DUE AGRICU. THERE BECOME SELF-SUDICIENT.


SOCIETY

ESTATES OF REALM: DOMINANT SOCIAL ORGANISATION. FIRST/SECOND STATES- MANTAINED PRIVILEGES THIRD ESTATE- ANY PRIVILEGES.

  • NOBILITY N CLERGY DID NOT PAY TAX: MANTAINED POWER BY COLLECTING TAXES FROM PEASANTS.
  • THIRTH ESTATE HAVE TO PAY TAX: DIFERENCES INCREASED BOURGEOISE (RICHER + POWERFUL) PETITE BOURGEOISE (DECLINE, COULD NOT COMPETE NEW FORMS OF PRODUCTION) PEASENTRY (SUFFERED DUE POOR HARVEST AND HIGH TAXES)

SOCIETY IN SPAIN

THE IDEA OF WORK WAS DISHONOURABLE. IN PRIVILEGED GROUPS NOBLES NOT INVEST IN PRODUCTIVITY OR PROFIT-MAKING ACT.

17 CNT. DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS : PLAGE EPIDEMICS, EXPULSION OF MORISCOS N FRECUENT WARS.

PHYLOSOPHY SCIENCE N ART ANCIENT REGIME

RATIONALISM/EMPIRICISM: NEW WAYS THINKING THAT EMERGED IN 17 CNT.

SCENTIFIC METHOD

CONSIST OBSERVATION, EMISSION HYPOTESIS, DEMOSTRATION OF HYPOTESIS, PRESENTATION OF CONCLUSIONS.

AS A RESAULT IMPORTANT ADVANCES IN:

  • ASTRONOMY: 1609 Galileo Galilei PROVE HELIOCENTRIC THEORY (SUN CENTRE SOLAR SYSTEM)
  • PHYSICS: 1643 EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI INVENTED BAROMETER. 1666 NEWTON LAW UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION.
  • MEDICINE N BIOLOGY: 1674 ANTON LEEUWENHOEK CREATE MICROSCOPE.
  • MATHS: 1642 BLAISE PASCAL INVENTED MECHANICAL CALCULATOR.


THE ENLIGHMENT

18 CNT: TIME OF TRANSITION BETWEEN EARLY MODERN AGE AND MODERN AGE IN EUROPE.

ENLIGHMENT: IMPORTANT INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT N NEW WAY OF THINKING EMERGED IN EUROPE.

MAIN PRINCIPLES OF ENLIGHMENT:

  • LEARNING AND TEACHING: PEOPLE MUST LEARN AS MUCH IS POSSIBLE.
  • REASON: ONLY REAL SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE.
  • SCIENCE N TECH PROGRESS: LEAD ECONO. GROWHT N IMPROVE PEOPLE WELLBEING.
  • EQUALITY/LIBERTY: BETTER SOCIETY IF MAN FREE.

ENLIGHTMENT SPAIN

IDEAS SPREAD BY JOVELLANOS N CONDE FLORIDABLANCA (ESTABLISHED SCHOOLS/ACADEM.)


POLITICAL IDEAS ENLIGHMENT

THINKERS NOT SUPPORT ABSOLUTE MONARCHY N PROPOSED MEASURES TO LIMIT ITS POWER SUCH SEPARATION OF POWERS N POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY.

ECONOMIC IDEAS ENLIGHTMENT

PHYSIOSCRACY: BELIEF WEALTH NATION DERIVES FROM ITS NATURAL RESOU. THEY THINK THAT:

  • AGRICULTURE MAIN SOURCE OF WEALTH.
  • CRAFTMANSHIP/TRADE SECONDARY ACT.
  • ABS.  MONARCH NOT INTERVINE IN ECONO.

ECONOMIC LIBERALISM

NEW DOCTRINE CALLED ECONOMIC LIBERALISM EMERGED BASED ON Adam Smith.

ECOMOMIC LIBERALISM: STATE SHOULD NOT INTERVENE IN PRECESSES OF PRODUCTION OR EXCHANGE OF GOODS.


ENLIGHTED DESPOTISM

NEW FORM OF GOVERNMENT THAT DEVELOPED IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN 18 CNT. OBJECTIVE- COMBINE ABSOLUTE MONARCHY WITH ENLIGHMENT IDEAS.

FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS:

  • MAINTAINED ABSOLUTE POWER THROUGH CENTRALISED GOVERNMENTS.
  • ENLIGHTMENT THINKERS: IMPORTANT POSITION
  • TRIED TO MAKE CHANGES PEACEFULLY THROUGH EDUCATION N NEW LAWS.

EXAMPLES: CATHERINE THE GREAT OF RUSSIA, JOSEPH II OF AUSTRIA, Carlos III OF SPAIN.

18 CNT IN SPAIN: BOURBONS

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS- RESULTS OF DYNASTIC CHANGE, HAPSBURGS WERE REPLACED BY BOURBONS. WITH BOURBONS, SPAIN GOVERNMENT MORE CENTRALISED.

Carlos II: LAST KING IN THE HAPSBURG. HE DIED WITHOUT HERS, CREATING A SERIOUS CONFLICT OVER SUCESSION. WAR OF SPANISH SUCESSION BEGAN (1701-1714). IT HAS NAMED PHILIP OF ANJOU, AND IT WAS FROM BOURBON DYNASTY (GRANDSCON OF LOUIS XIV).

THE WAR ENDED WITH TREATIES OF UTRECHT AND RASTATT, WITH THIS AGREEMENTS:

  • AUSTRIA GAINED LAND FROM SPAIN.
  • PHILIP OF ANJOU BECAME Felipe V, KING OF SPAIN. THIS WAS THE START OF THE BOURBON DYNASTY IN SPAIN.


ECONOMIC CHANGES IN 18 CNT

  • HARVEST IMPROVED: NEW AGRICULTURAL TECHNI. (CROP ROTATION) NEW CROPS INTRODUCED (POTATOES N CORN).
  • CRAFT PRODUCTION: INCREASE DUE POPULATION GROWHT. RURAL AREAS DOMESTIC SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION BECAME IMP.. ROYAL MANUFACURERS PRODUCE LUXURY GOODS.

ECONOMIC REFORM IN SPAIN

SPAIN EXPERIENCE GROWTH IN 18 CNT AS RESAULT REFORMS. MOST IMPORTANTS WERE IN

  • AGRICULTURE: CANALS WERE BUILT TO FACILITATE IRRIGATION.
  • CRAFT PRODUCTION: ROYAL MANUFACTURERS ESTABLISHED FOR SILK.
  • TRADE: INTERNAL CUSTOMS WERE ABOLISHED.


18 CNT SOCIETY:

POPULATION IN EUROPE INCREASE.

IN SPAIN: BEGGINING OF DEMOGRAPHIC TREND: HIGHER POPU. DENSITY IN PERIPHERY AND LOWER IN THE CENTRE (EXCEPTION MADRID).

EUROPEAN SOCIETY:BASED ON ESTATES SYSTEM, BUT ENLIGHTMENT THINKERS WANTED TO INTRODUCE REFORMS.

  • NOBILITY N CLERGY OPPOSED TO ANY CHANGE THAT WOULD REDUCE THEIR DOMINANCE.
  • WHEALTHY BOURGEOISE WAS INSPIRED BY ENLIGHMENT IDEAS SUCH VALUE OF WORK.
  • PEASENTS LIVING CONDITIONS NOT IMPROVE.

SOCIAL REFORMS IN SPAIN.

BOURBONS KINGS IMPLEMENTED SOCIAL REFORRMS SUCH THE ELIMINATION OF DISHONOUR LABOR. IN SOME CASES, POPULAR PROTEST (ESQUILACHE RIOTS). 


ROCOCO ART

ROCOCO: ARISTOCRATIC STYLE OF ART, WAS POPULAR IN EUROPE BETWEEN THE 1730-1760, CHARACTERISED BY EXUBERANT FORMS OF ELABORATE DECORATION.

  • ARCHITECTURE: INTERIORS WERE ELABORATELY DECORATED. LUXURIOUS PALACES WERE BUILT SUCH HOTEL DE SOUBISE.
  • PAINTINGS: PASTEL COLOURS WERE USED. EXAMPLE-THE SWING.
  • SCULPTURE: ARE SMALL, REPRESENTED JOYFUL AND MYTHOLOGICAL THEMES. EXAMPLE-CUPID.

IN SPAIN, RELIGIOUS THEMES PREDOMINATE.

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