Aircraft systems

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THE SENSE OF SIGHT: Extraocular muscles, Sclera, Choroid, Optic nerve, Crystalline lens, iris, cornea, aqueous humour, vitreos humour, retina.

THE SENSE OF HEARING: Pinna, External auditory canal, Eardrum, Semicircular canals, Cochlea, Auditory nerve, Eustachian tube, chain of bones.

NERVOUS SYSTEM: This system receives and transmits information rapidly by electrical impulses, through sensory neurons.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: This system consist of glands that secrete hormones that are carried in the blood to the cells of the target tissue or organ.


The hypothalamus is the main centre of integration between nervous and endocrine systems, receive signs from the nervous system. These signals tell the hypothalamus to produce other nerve signals and special hormones: releasing factors and inhibiting factors, that acts on the pituitary gland and control the release of hormones.


Neurons transmit information as electrical signals. These impulses travel along the neuron, always in the same direction, and exit through the axion terminal. Transmission occurs at a synapse.
SYNAPSE: Neurons aren't physically connected there is a gap between them called a synaptic cleft. The axon terminal releases chemical messenges called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters travel accros the synaptic cleft and are detected by the receptors by the receptors of the postsynaptic neuron.


PERIPHERAL NERVES: Composed of axons, CRANIAL: nerves emerge from the brain, SPINAL: nerves emerge from the spinal cord, SENSORY NERVES: transmit information from the receptors to the CNS, MOTOR NERVES: transmit information from the CNS to effectors, SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: involved in voluntary muscle mouvement and involluntary reflex acts, AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: Controls unconscious automatic actiosns, divided in:

SYMPATHETIC: controls the fight-or-fight reponse in situations of physical or emotional estress
PARASYMPATHETIC: Controls activities for rest and digestion.

ADRENAL GLANDS: Two glands situated in the kidneys:
Cortex: It secrets cortisol for the synthesis of glucose and the breakdown of fats and proteins.
Medulla: Secretes adrenaline, this hormone acts on the autonomous nervous system.


GAMETOGENESIS: Process of forming gametes, takes place in the gonads.
FERTILIZATION: Joining of two gametes and formation of zygote.
EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT; cell division increases the number of cells forming the embryo, who continues developing and becomes a foetus.
CHILDBIRTH: Birth of the baby. Human beings are living-bearing, The baby is born and fully formed
DEVELOPMENT: Baby grows and reaches maturity.


Bacteria---antibiotics--- they stop bacteria from reproducing and kill them, an overuse can result in resistant bacteria.
Virus---Antibodies/antivirals---Eliminate virus.Treat viruses like herpes. Some of them don't have treatments.
Fungi---Antifugals---Prevent growth, destroying fungi.
Protozoa---Special medication---They may stop protozoa from reproducing or kill them. Few specific drugs are available.

1.-When the pathogens enter the body, the capillaries in the area dilate and blood flow increases. 2.-Capillary permeability increases; blodd leaves the blood vessels and flows to the injuredarea, causing swelling. 3.- The monocytes that have left the blood vessels become phagocytes. 4.-Phagocytes wrap their cellular projections, called pseudopodia,amound the pathogens. SPECIFIC IMMUNE REPONSE: When a non-specific reponse does not stop a pathogen, a third line of defence is activated: a specific immune reponse. This type of reponse is carried out by lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Lymphocites recognize anitigens entering the body. They produce antibodies.
They're T-cells: recognise antigens and destroy them and B-cells: Produce antibodies specific to the antigen that activated them.
Some of these cells become memory cells that remain in the body for life so, if the same agent invades the body again. The memory cells "remember ir" so the body will be immune to this disease.

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